Correction of the Female Breast: Types and Techniques

Plastic surgeon Alexander Panayetov – about when it is worth resorting to mammoplasty (and whether it is worth it at all)

Mammoplasty – changing the shape and / or size of the breast by surgery. Depending on the purpose of the operation, mammoplasty is divided into the following areas:

• Breast augmentation, or end prosthetics using breast implants

• Breast reduction or reduction mammoplasty. The operation allows you to reduce the size of the breast and give it its lost shape. Reduction mammoplasty is also used if it is required to correct breast asymmetry.

• Breast lift or mastopexy. This type of operation allows you to shape the breast while maintaining its size.

• Re-end prosthetics of the breast. This type of operation is indicated when a patient deforms, damages or displaces previously installed implants, as well as when soft tissues are compacted and (or) inflammatory processes around them.

Indications for breast plastic surgery

Like most plastic surgeries, mammoplasty is an aesthetic operation, however, in some cases, breast augmentation is recommended not only for aesthetic reasons, but also to improve the overall quality of life of the patient or patient (here we will clarify that men also sometimes need mammoplasty – they have there is gynecomastia – an increase in the mammary glands, which is an indication for plastic surgery). In 5% of cases, mammoplasty is performed for medical reasons (for example, breast reconstruction after removal, or hypertrophied breasts, which entails health problems).

Breast augmentation or end prosthetics

The operation is carried out under general anesthesia and lasts 1 hour and 30 minutes. For breast augmentation, durable hypoallergenic silicone implants are used, thanks to which a new breast shape is created and its size increases. Implants are selected individually – so that the breast looks natural and natural. Breast implants are filled with silicone gel, which does not leak even if the implant shell is damaged, since it consists of large particles.

Incisions are made most often along the natural folds of the skin – a hidden scar remains there, usually about 4 cm long. Depending on the characteristics of the operation, the incision can also be made in the fold under the mammary gland or around the areola of the nipple – all this is decided on individual consultations with a plastic surgeon and depends on a number of circumstances, personal characteristics and wishes of the patient.

Reduction mammoplasty (breast reduction)

Macromastia – a disproportionately large breast size – is a fairly common occurrence, in some cases associated with excess weight, and in others – simply as a result of the individual characteristics of the body structure. In addition to the fact that it is quite difficult for owners of too large a bust to find suitable underwear, they also face more serious problems. Hypertrophied breasts often cause physical discomfort, having a serious impact on the spine, which, in turn, causes back and shoulder pain, various breast diseases and the appearance of diaper rash and dermatitis in the chest folds. Too much weight of the bust makes its owner slouch and leads to the appearance of scoliosis. Therefore, macromastia is one of those problems for which surgical intervention is indicated not only for aesthetic reasons…

Just like breast augmentation, reduction mammoplasty is performed under general anesthesia and lasts about 3 hours. Basically, there are two options for cuts:

• Around the areola and vertical to the pancreatic fold;

• Around the areola, vertical and along the pancreatic fold (anchor incision).

During breast reduction surgery, excess fat, glandular and skin tissue is excised. Then the breast is given a new shape and a lift is done. At the final stage of the operation, drainages are placed and sutures are applied. Suture scars are located around the areola, vertically centered from the inferior edge of the areola to the pancreatic fold and in the pancreatic fold itself. Most often they are invisible, and six months after the operation, you can lighten the scar tissue as much as possible by means of hardware cosmetology. The result of the operation is felt almost immediately: the discomfort caused by the excessive weight of the bust will disappear, and over time (on average, 4.5-6 months after the operation) you will be able to fully enjoy the aesthetic effect.

Mastopexy (breast lift)

Mastopexy is a plastic surgery to lift the breast. This type of operation allows you to give the breast a lost shape while maintaining its size.

The operation is performed under general anesthesia (general anesthesia) and lasts 3 hours. Operation methods:

• Pre-areolar or circular mastopexy. In this case, an incision is made around the areola of the nipple, when it is necessary to remove only excess skin without removing the glandular or fatty tissue. This method is usually preferred for mild ptosis (degree of sagging of the breast).

• Vertical mastopexy. In this case, an incision is also made around the areola of the nipple, and vertically down the center from the lower pole of the areola to the pancreatic fold, but this increases the volume of removed tissue. Vertical mastopexy is used with a more pronounced degree of sagging.

• Anchor mastopexy. In this case, an incision is made around the areola and goes vertically downward – into the inframammary fold, in addition, a horizontal incision is made, passing through the pancreatic fold. This type of mastopexy is preferred if the degree of ptosis is severe and a significant amount of tissue needs to be removed. Only the skin and adipose tissue is removed, we do not touch the glandular tissue. This type of lift is so named because the suture that remains after the operation resembles an anchor in shape.

In all cases described, the nipple remains sensitive after surgery, and the woman retains the ability to breastfeed.

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